List of Resources, August 2000


Thanks to

 Joel Brown, Chuck Rice, and Ann Lewandowski


ü                Items marked with a globe are recommended sources of introductory material and are included in the “Readings.”

·                    Items marked with a bullet are in “Additional Resources.”


Sources of Extensive Lists of Internet Links:


·    Importance of charred organic matter in Black Chernozem soils of Saskatchewan:
        E.V. Ponomarenko and D.W. Anderson

·                    Global Climate Change: Selective List of Online Resources
From the Pacific Institute. An extensive, selective, and categorized list of links to information on the science and policy of climate change.


·                    Global Change Course at Iowa State University.
Includes a categorized list of links, and full lecture transcripts.


·                    Global Change Master Directory.
From NASA. Extensive, categorized, and searchable links to data related to global change, earth science, and environmental information. Click on Earth
Science Links for links to other sites.


I.       What is global change?


ü                Peter M. Vitousek, 1994. Beyond Global Warming: Ecology and Global Change. Ecology 75(7): 1861-1876.


·                    P.M. Vitousek. 1992. Global Environmental Change: An Introduction. Annu Rev of Ecol Syst 23:1-14.


·                    William H. Schlesinger. 1997. Biogeochemistry: An Analysis of Global Change. Academic Press, San Diego. Pp. 3-14.


·                    U.S. Global Change Research Program.
Includes a section for educators, related links, and the “U.S. National Assessment of The Potential Consequences of Climate Variability and Change.”
Also includes the
US Global Change Research Information Office. is a source of government publications and data maintained
by the CIESIN for the GCRP.


·                    USDA Global Change Program Office.
Includes fact sheets suitable for distribution.

·                    Pacific Institute Global Change Program.

·                    Global Change Electronic Edition.
Published by the Pacific Institute for Studies in Development, Environment, and Security. Extensive and searchable source of current news articles, data,

legislative action, and links to other sources of information about climate change and ozone depletion.

·                    NASA Earth Observatory
Includes news, features, images, data, and more.

·                    Center for International Earth Science Information Network at Columbia University.
Includes the World Data Center.

·                    Wildland Invasive Species Program

·                    Woody Plant Encroachment Bibliography


·                    Trees in Grasslands: Biogeochemical Consequences of Woody Plant Expansion
A pdf version of a book chapter by Steve Archer, Thomas Boutton, and K.A. Hibbard. Describes a study of the carbon sequestration capacity in semi-arid

·                    Landuse History of North America

o                   Earthday Network



Web sites: Global Change Education


·                    Global Change and Environmental Education Resources.
A list of links maintained by the U.S. Global Change Research Information Office

o                   Education links suggested by the US Global Change Research Program

·                    Teaching with the Internet.
Located at the Iowa State University Global Change Course site. at Iowa State University

·                    Atmosphere, Climate and Environment Information Programme.
Supported by the government of the United Kingdom. Click on “Fact sheets” and “Study packs.”


II.    Atmospheric chemistry

ü                Diagram of greenhouse effect

ü                What Human Activities Contribute to Climate Change?

ü                Biomass Burning and Climate Change.
Describes the effect of biomass burning on global change. From NASA’s Langley Research Center.


ü                Greenhouse Gases: Sources, Sinks & Concentrations
From the Atmosphere, Climate and Environment Information Programme of the UK government.


ü                The Global Carbon Cycle
From the World Resources Institute


ü                “Greenhouse gas emissions and agriculture”
Names the primary greenhouse gases that are emitted directly and indirectly from agricultural activities and ways farmers may reduce some of them.

ü                Methane and Other Greenhouse Gases
Information from the US EPA. Includes reports on the costs and technological options for reducing emissions of GHG’s – especially methane.


ü                Methane Emissions from Livestock.
A Thematic Guide from the Center for International Earth Science


ü                Dietary and Environmental Aspects of Methane Production in Ruminants
From the Alberta Agriculture Food and Rural Development


ü                Carbon cycle diagram


ü                Organic Matter Management – the science of soil organic matter.


·                    P.A. Matson and P.M. Vitousek. 1990. Ecosystem Approach to a Global Nitrous Oxide Budget. BioScience 40:667-672.



III. What is climate change?


ü                An Introduction to Climate Change
From the Atmosphere, Climate and Environment Information Programme of the UK government.


ü                Frequently Asked Questions about CO2, climate change, and the level of scientific certainty.

ü                NOAA National Climatic Data Center
frequently asked questions about global warming.

ü                Milankovitch Theory
An explanation of the long term cycles that affect climate change over tens- and hundreds-of-thousands of years.

ü                Why the United States is Becoming More Vulnerable to Natural Disasters
On the web site of the American Geophysical Union.


ü                Factors Influencing Bottom-Line Resource Impacts
Addresses: 1) Carbon Dioxide, Temperature, and Crop Yields; 2) Effects on Soil Resources; 3) Effects on Weeds, Insects, and Disease; 4) Effects on
Water Resources.


·                    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s global warming page.

·                    The Pew Center on Global Climate Change

o                   What’s Up with the Weather?
A web site associated with a PBS NOVA special aired April 2000. Extensive interviews, frequently asked questions, explanation of information found in ice

·                    The Debate About Climate Change: interviews with leading proponents and critics of global warming’s threat.

·                    Global Climate Change Briefing Book.
“Compiled by the Congressional Research Service, a branch of the Library of Congress providing nonpartisan research reports to members of the House
and Senate.”

·                    Climate Change Links from the Global Environment Information Centre, a Japanese organization

o                   ARIC at The Manchester Metropolitan University.
“ARIC provides world class research and education in atmospheric and sustainability issues to encourage responsible development.”

·                    World Resources Institute

·                    NOAA Library library specializing in oceanic and atmospheric information.

·                    NOAA climate page

·                    The Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory
“The CMDL of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, in Boulder, Colorado, conducts research related to atmospheric constituents that
are capable of forcing change in the climate of the Earth or that may deplete the ozone layer. CMDL monitors greenhouse gases, aerosols, ozone, ozone-
depleting gases and solar and terrestrial radiation at global sites including four Baseline Observatories.”

·                    Alternative Views of Climate Change.
A list of sites that disagree with the seriousness of the threat or with the actions being proposed to mitigate or adapt to climate change.

·                    World Climate Report
A periodical published by the Greening Earth Society ( “WCR has been proven to be an effective tool in pointing out the
weaknesses and fallacies in the science which is being touted as ‘proof’ of disastrous greenhouse warming.”

o                   Impact of Climate Change and Land Use in the Southwestern U.S.
An interactive web workshop from 1997. Sponsored by USGS.

o                   ENN article titled, “Southwest warned to plan for dry decade.”

·                    Ultimate Tree-Ring Web Pages

o                   Center for the Study of Carbon Dioxide and Global Change

·                    Climate Change.
From the Liberty Tree Alliance. Provides summary information.


·                    Agriculture and Global Environmental Change.
A Thematic Guide from the Center for International Earth Science. Addresses the following:


·     Human Causes of Global Climate Change Related to Agriculture

·     Impacts of Global Climate Change on Agriculture

·     Adaptations to Global Climate Change

·     Farm Policy Options

·     Indigenous Agricultural and Environmental Knowledge Systems


·                    The Australian Greenhouse Office Fact Sheets.

·                    Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center http://cdiac.ESD.ORNL.GOV/
The primary global-change data and information analysis center of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE).


·                    Frequently Asked Questions http://cdiac.ESD.ORNL.GOV/pns/faq.html
The questions are just a bit more technical than other FAQ’s in this list. You can ask your own question.

o                   Herrick, J.E.; Wander, M.M. 1998. Relationships between soil organic carbon and soil quality in cropped and rangeland soils: the importance of
distribution, composition, and soil biological activity.
Soil Processes and the Carbon Cycle. Boca Raton, Fla. : CRC Press, .. p. 405-
425.(S592.6.C35S65- 1998). An academic review explaining the importance of soil organic matter.

·                    A Paleo Perspective on Global Warming (NOAA)

·                    Global Warming: Early Warning Signs
A list of events around the world that are evidence of or possible consequences of global warming. Prepared by a group of environmental advocacy

IV.  Land use changes

V.     Changes in water resources

VI.  Changes in ecological systems and services

VII.           A. & B Impact to agriculture and resources

ü                U.S. National Assessment
The potential consequences of climate variability and change.

ü                Agriculture & Global Climate Change: A Review of Impacts to U.S. Agricultural Resources.
A report from the Pew Climate Change Center describing the effect of climate change on agriculture and ways that agriculture can adapt. When estimating
the effects, minimal consideration is given to changes in the incidence and severity of agricultural pests, soil erosion, tropospheric ozone levels, and extreme
events such as droughts and floods.

ü                The Regional Impacts of Climate Change — An Assessment of Vulnerability by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

ü                Climate Change & Agriculture
From the Atmosphere, Climate and Environment Information Programme of the UK government.

ü                Impacts of Global Climate Change on Agriculture.
A Thematic Guide from the Center for International Earth Science.


·                    Global Warming Impacts. the US EPA. Assesses the affects of climate change on a variety
of sectors. See also the
Bibliography of the impacts of climate change.


·                    Bibliography: Climate Change and Impact on US Water Resources
from the Pacific Institute.


·                    Bibliography: Climate Change and Its Impact on Biodiversity
Also from the Pacific Institute.


·                    Climate Variability, Climate Change and Western Water.
From the Western Water Policy Review Advisory Commission, a Presidential Committee created in 1995.

o                   Is Global Warming Harmful to Health? by Paul R. Epstein. Scientific American. August 2000. Pp 50-57.
Climate change may trigger greater incidence of infectious diseases because of increased frequency of floods and droughts, and expansion of the ecological
range of disease vectors.


VII. C. Risk management


ü                Malk, Andrew. 1999. “Uncertainty and Risk Assessment In W.T. Sexton, et al. Ecological Stewardship: A Common Reference for Ecosystem
Management, Vol. III.
Oxford : Elsevier Science. Pp. 191-195.

·                    Haynes, Richard and Dave Cleaves. 1999. Uncertainty, Risk, and Ecosystem Management. In Ecological Stewardship: A Common Reference for
Ecosystem Management, Vol. III.
Oxford : Elsevier Science. Pp. 413-429.

·                    Cleaves, David A. and Richard W. Haynes. 1999. Risk Management for Ecological Stewardship. In Ecological Stewardship: A Common

Reference for Ecosystem Management, Vol. III. Oxford : Elsevier Science. Pp. 431-461.


VIII.        Responses


·                    C.A. Seybold, J.E. Herrick, and J.J. Brejda. 1999. Soil Resilience: A Fundamental Component of Soil Quality. Soil Science 164:224-234.


·                    Mitigation and Adaptation for Climate Change: Answers and Questions
A summary of the research results presented at the Workshop on Costs, Impacts, and Possible Benefits of CO2 Mitigation held in September 1992 in
Laxenburg, Austria, under the auspices of the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA) and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate
Change (IPCC). A global analysis of the potential for mitigation and adaptation. Little about specific methods of mitigation and adaptation.


IX.  Mitigation responses


ü                Soil Carbon Sequestration: Frequently Asked Questions


ü                Growing Carbon: A New Crop That Helps Agricultural Producers and the Climate, Too. A brochure for agricultural producers, NRCS staff and
the conservation partnership. Explains climate change and its implications; and discusses the effect of agriculture on greenhouse gases, practices that can
increase carbon storage in soil, and the potential for carbon markets. Request a copy by calling 1-888-526-3227, or e-mailing Or
download a copy from

ü                Overview of Global Change, Agriculture, and the Conservation Partnership. An NRCS paper distributed May 2000.

ü                The Indiana Carbon Storage Project: Questions and Answers.

ü                Review of Published Sequestration Potentials and Carbon Values

ü                R. Lal, R.F. Follett, J. Kimble, and C.V.Cole. 1999. Managing U.S. Cropland to Sequester Carbon in Soil. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation

ü                Land Use and Global Climate Change
A report from the Pew Center on Global Climate Change examining how land can be managed to slow the rate of increase in atmospheric CO2 levels,
reviewing how the Kyoto Protocol deals with land uses, and identifying issues that must be resolved if the Protocol is to be implemented.

ü                Working Trees for Carbon Cycle Balance
A two-page introduction to agroforestry and it potential for removing CO2 from the atmosphere. Available from the USDA National Agroforestry Center,

ü                Council for Agricultural Science and Technology
The issue paper “Storing Carbon in Agricultural Soils to Help Mitigate Global Warming” (2000) is available on-line. The text of the report, “Preparing U.S.
Agriculture for Global Climate Change” (1992) is not available on-line, but both publications can be ordered by calling 1-800-375-CAST or (515) 292-

ü                Emission and Reduction of Greenhouse Gases from Agriculture and Food Manufacturing
A summary white paper from the US Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, and the Office of Industrial Technologies.


ü                Ruminant Livestock Efficiency Program
From the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.


ü                Cost Analyses of Methane Emissions Reductions
From the US EPA.


·                    Carbon: Exploring the Benefits to Farmers and Society
A conference in Des Moines, Iowa, August 29-31. Check the site for abstracts or proceedings.


·                    Climate Change Mitigation
A bibliography of articles by Bruce McCarl at Texas A&M University.


·                    Policies and Measures for Greenhouse Gas Mitigation.
An analysis of a wide range of mitigation measures. From the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD).


·                    Carbon Sequestration Research and Development
A report from the U.S. Department of Energy. Copies available on-line, or by ordering from NTIS at, 1-800-553-6847.


·                    Report from a Workshop on Carbon Sequestration in Soils
co-sponsored by CAST, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. (December 1998)


·                    Land-Use Management for Carbon Sequestration.
From the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. A study in sub-Saharan Africa.


·                    Carbon sinks and sequestration
Projects sponsored by the World Resources Institute.


·                    MIT Carbon Sequestration Initiative
A research program at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.


VIII.B.1. Biofuels and bioproducts


ü                Biomass
A description of how biomass can be used for energy.


ü                What are Biofuels?
From the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Biofuels Program.

ü                The Role of Bioenergy in Greenhouse Gas Mitigation.
A position paper prepared by IEA Bioenergy Task 25.


ü                Biobased Chemicals
From the U.S. Department of Energy’s Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Network (EREN).


ü                How Green are Green Plastics? by Tillman U. Gerngross and Steven C. Slater. Scientific American. August 2000. Pp 37-41.


·                    International Energy Agency (IEA)
IEA Bioenergy is an international collaboration promoting research, development, and deployment of energy technologies that exploit bioenergy resources.


·                    New Uses Council
A nonprofit organization dedicated to expanding the development and commercialization of new industrial, energy, and non-food consumer uses of
renewable agricultural, forestry, livestock and marine products.


·                    Bioproducts fact sheets
From the U.S. Department of Energy’s Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Network (EREN).


·                    iobased Products and Bioenergy
A multi-agency federal government initiative..


IX. Adaptation responses


ü                An Introductory Guide to Adaptive Management.
From the Forest Service in British Columbia. Their Adaptive Management home page is at:


ü                Definitions of Adaptive Management


ü                Adaptive Management of Conservation & Development Projects


ü                Winning and Losing the Global Warming Debate
The author concludes that in arguing about whether to try to mitigate climate change, we have neglected to develop our ability to adapt.


ü                Strategic Planning
A series of fact sheets about how to do strategic planning, from the Alliance for Nonprofit Management.


·                    The Institute for Decision Innovations


X.     A. Field activities


ü                Field Activities (See workshop materials.)


·                    MDAbiogas An article about a Minnesota program to promote utilization of biogas on farms.


·                    Pacific Northwest Carbon Sequestration Coalition


·                    Soil Sequestration of Carbon and Biomass-to-Ethanol. A technical note describing activities at the NRCS Lockeford Plant Materials Center in


·                    Methane production project
“EnergyXchange is a nonprofit organization that oversees the operation of a new landfill gas-to-energy facility in Yancey and Mitchell counties in Western
North Carolina.”


X. B. Research


·                    A U.S. Inventory of Agricultural Soil Carbon at Local to National Scales.
By M. Eve, K. Paustian, R.F. Follett, and M. Sperow.

o                   ARS National Programs

·                    Brookhaven National Laboratory.
Technology to study the effects of elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations on terrestrial systems.

·                    Batelle
A company that performs life cycle analysis and related services





·                    The CENTURY Model




o                   NASIS (The National Soil Information System)
A database of soil information from several sources. Designed to manage and maintain soil data from collection to dissemination for the National
Cooperative Soil Survey. Does not include mapping.


·                    STATSGO (State Soil Geographic Database)
State general soil maps made by generalizing the detailed soil survey data. The level of mapping is designed to be used for broad planning and management
uses covering state, regional, and multi-state areas. All areas of the country are available. A STATSGO Soils Browser (available separately)
works with ArcInfo to allow sophisticated analysis of STATSGO data.

·                    Other soil data products in development:
(Soil Survey Geographic Database) is the most detailed level of digital soils data available from
the NRCS. Data is designed for use in GIS’s. As of July 2000, 866 county soil surveys were available.
Soils Explorer is a viewer for SSURGO.
. As of March 2000, 38 counties were available. SSURGO data can also be used with the


·                    Soils Data Viewer in the Customer Service Toolkit. Soils Data Viewer requires ArcInfo.


·                    PLANTS Database


·                    ESIS (Ecological Site Information System)


·                    NRI ( National Resources Inventory)


o                   PRISM
for detailed precipitation maps


·                    GEM
Provides simulated climate data for use in models.


C. Activities of Other Organizations


ü                Forest and land-use change carbon sequestration projects
Projects sponsored by the World Resources Institute.



National Aeronautics and Space Administration


·                    NASA Climate News and Research


·                    Goddard Institute for Space Studies



U.S. Department of Agriculture


·                    The Global Change Program Office (GCPO) functions as the Department-wide coordinator of agriculture, rural and forestry-related global change
program and policy issues facing USDA:


·                    The Office of Energy Policy and New Uses (OEPNU) assists the Secretary of Agriculture in developing Departmental energy policy and coordinating
Departmental energy programs and strategies. The Office provides economic analysis on energy policy issues, coordinates USDA energy-related activities
within and outside the Department, and studies the feasibility of new uses of agricultural products:


·                    The U.S. Forest Service Southern Global Change Research Program


·                    Agricultural Research Service Global Change research programs.



National Science Foundation


·                    Global Change Research Programs\


·                    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration –

·                    Climate and Global Change Program

·                    How do We study Global Warming?



U.S. Department of Energy

·                    Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Network:

·                    Agriculture Industry of the Future program (IOF) provides cost-shared funding to industry partnerships conducting research and development for the
bio-products industry:

o                   Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center
The primary global-change data and information analysis center of the U.S. Department of Energy.

·                    The Energy Information Administration (EIA)
Provides information about energy sources, including environmental and climate change implications.

U.S. Department of State

·                    Spotlight: Climate Change


U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

o                   Global Warming Site

·                    Methane Energy Programs.
From the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

·                    Ruminant Livestock Efficiency Program
From the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.


U.S. Geologic Survey

·                    Global Change Research Program
A source for ground-based and remotely sensed earth science data and information used by global change researchers and contributing to assessments of
the potential effects of global change on society.


U.S. Global Change Research Program:

·                    Global Change Data and Information System
A source of global climate change resource data.

o                   U.S. National Assessment: The Potential Consequences of Climate Variability and Change


Office of Science and Technology Policy


·                    Environment Division Current Projects


XI.            D. Policy


ü                An Introduction to the Climate Change Convention. This document includes a list of key dates in the development of the Climate Change Convention
and the Kyoto Protocol. (See workshop materials, and


ü                Global Climate Change Treaty: The Kyoto Protocol
The Kyoto Protocol follows from the Climate Change Convention.


ü                “Climate Change and U.S. Agriculture: Kyoto and Buenos Aires”


ü                U.S. Views on Land Use, Land-Use Change and Forests. Framework Convention on Climate Change


ü                Federal Legislative and Executive Actions (1999-2000)


ü                NRCS policy on Carbon Sequestration


ü                NARC&DC policy on Global Change


·                    World Resources Institute
Publications about the economics and politics of climate change mitigation issues.


·                    Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.
Created by the UNEP


o                   United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.
Go to for a “Guide to the Climate Change Negotiation Process.”


·                    U.S. Submission on Land-Use, Land-Use Change, and Forestry.
The U.S. position on Articles 3.3, 3.4 and 3.7 of the Kyoto Protocol.


·                    New Scientist Magazine’s page about global warming, especially the debates surrounding the Kyoto protocol.


·                    What does the Kyoto protocol mean to US. energy markets and the U.S. economy?
A Briefing Paper on the Energy Information Administration's Analysis and Report Prepared for the Committee on Science, U.S. House of Representatives,
October 1998.

·                    Centre for Science and the Environment
An organization representing the interests of India and other developing countries in the climate change negotiations.


·                    Economic Analysis of U.S. Agriculture and the Kyoto Protocol.


Appendix: Emissions Trading


·                    Emissions trading and carbon credits

·                    Creating a Market for Carbon Emissions: Opportunities for U.S. Agriculture and Forestry by R. Sandor, J. Skees, M. Walsh, and A. LeBlanc.

·                    A Reuters article about an agreement among British companies to trade carbon emissions credits.

·                    Banking on Global Warming
An ENN article.


o                   Prototype Carbon Fund.
A World Bank product “that aims to demonstrate how project-based emissions transactions can mitigate climate change.”


·                    CQuest
A supplier of carbon emission reduction credits (CERC’s). The company identifies and documents landowners who will supply CERC’s.


·                    The Carbon Trading Market at the Sydney Futures Exchange

o                   The Montana Carbon Offset Coalition

o                   Environmental Financial Products
An organization designing markets and finding carbon buyers.


o                   Environmentally Correct Concepts

o                   Woodrising Consulting. http//
A company involved in climate change offset projects. Go to for “What is an offset project?” and “ What is
joint implementation?”


o                   ICF Consulting
“One of the world's leading consulting firms assisting clients in managing the world's natural, physical, economic, and community resources in a sustainable
way. The firm helps clients optimize energy resources, meet environmental challenges, foster economic and community development, enhance transportation
policy and projects, and manage information technology resources.”


o                   Sustainable energy information
From the Center for Renewable Energy and Sustainable Technology (CREST at


o                   Carbon Trading Market
Information about activities in Australia.