"American Chemical Society"

Background: 2002 Renewable Hydrogen  Production

Internal Pentagon Report (Feb-2004)
The military must prepare for Abrupt Climate Change as the greatest security threat to America.

Pyrolysis Conversion and Hints

Terra Preta: A 2000 Year Old Soil Experiment

Terra preta sites are so valued they are dug up and sold for potting soil

Terra Preta de Indio or Amazonian Dark Earths display high soil fertility

Terra Preta & Nutrient Availability

Terra Preta & Nutrient Leaching

Terra Preta & Crop Productivity

What do we find in these anomalous black earths?

Terra Preta sites have one consistent feature:

Black Carbon from charcoal is the common element in Terra Preta

If charcoal was successfully used 2000 years ago to build a fertile layer of top soil and increase soil carbon content……

Christoph Steiner Field Studies

3 Year Field Trial Studies

Field Trial Study

3 Year Results Summary

Impact on Microbial Growth

Microbial Response

Charcoal provides a preferred habitat for soil bacteria and mycorrhizal fungi

Global Charcoal Research

Pyrolytic conversion of biomass offers options

Progression of Pyrolysis

Typical TGA of Pyrolysis

Progression of Pyrolysis

Current uses of non-renewable hydrogen

Low Temp Charcoal Advantage

Charcoal experiments

Chemical Pathways for Simultaneous Removal of Major CO2
 and ppm Levels of NOx and SOx Emissions by Innovative
 Application of the Fertilizer Production Reactions

Integration of Ammonia Carbonation and Biomass Pyrolysis for Carbon Management

Bench Scale NH3-CO2-Char Experiment

Chemical Pathways for Simultaneous Removal of Major CO2
 and ppm Levels of NOx and SOx Emissions by Innovative
 Application of the Fertilizer Production Reactions

Pilot
Test

Crushed Interior 2000x SEM

A Simple System

Agricultural use offers Carbon Negative Energy

Slide 38

Is it Technically Possible to Go Carbon Negative?*

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