Economical carbon capture, storage and utilization while producing sustainable fuels, fertilizer and restoring farmland.




Many economic and social benefits are derived using bio-energy charcoal residue to scrub CO2 from exhaust streams.


Charcoal can be a beneficial soil amendment as it could be stable for thousands of years. When utilized in combination with aqueous ammonia scrubbing system for CO2, the two create a nitrogen fertilizer. This novel material has environmental advantages over typical fertilizers, which release significant quantities of CO2 during their manufacture.


The CO2 and aqueous gas phase ammonia create a solid fertilizer deep inside the porous charcoal, allowing traditional coating technologies to produce a slow controlled release nitrogen source. Charcoal and fertilizer reduce the typical nitrous oxide (GHG) emissions from agricultural fertilizer use. In certain soils, CO2 will mineralize for long term capture in addition to the charcoal carbon. Prior work used renewable hydrogen to maximize CO2 capture.


A new less capital-intensive method utilizes commercially available aqueous ammonia and charcoal produced from co-firing biomass gases for NOx reduction applications. The dry catalytic aqueous ammonia char removes CO2/SOx/NOx from fossil fuel combustion while producing of a superior carbon-nitrogen-sulfur fertilizer. Whether utilizing CO2 from fossil fuel combustion or from biomass conversion technologies, this system represents a multi-facet utilization and storage rather than sequestration.


Some benefits include: fast implementation cycle, comparatively low-cost, restoration of eroded topsoil and a closed cycle for return of soil micronutrients. Increases in soil fertility, nutrient uptake (cation exchange), microbial activity, water holding capacity, and crop yields are found. Decreases in nutrient leaching, farm chemical runoff and GHG emissions lead to improved air/soil/water quality and support for other terrestrial sequestration efforts.